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Levi Richardson
Levi Richardson

Strength Training Anatomy 1st Edition Pdf 16


During the aging process, physical capabilities (e.g., muscular strength) and cognitive functions (e.g., memory) gradually decrease. Regarding cognitive functions, substantial functional (e.g., compensatory brain activity) and structural changes (e.g., shrinking of the hippocampus) in the brain cause this decline. Notably, growing evidence points towards a relationship between cognition and measures of muscular strength and muscle mass. Based on this emerging evidence, resistance exercises and/or resistance training, which contributes to the preservation and augmentation of muscular strength and muscle mass, may trigger beneficial neurobiological processes and could be crucial for healthy aging that includes preservation of the brain and cognition. Compared with the multitude of studies that have investigated the influence of endurance exercises and/or endurance training on cognitive performance and brain structure, considerably less work has focused on the effects of resistance exercises and/or resistance training. While the available evidence regarding resistance exercise-induced changes in cognitive functions is pooled, the underlying neurobiological processes, such as functional and structural brain changes, have yet to be summarized. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of resistance exercise-induced functional and/or structural brain changes that are related to cognitive functions.




Strength Training Anatomy 1st Edition Pdf 16



In general, our results regarding the source of the risk of bias are somewhat heterogeneous (see Fig. 3); nevertheless, the overall quality of the majority of the reviewed studies can be regarded as sufficiently high. However, the risk of bias could be further minimized by proper planning of the study, which would strengthen the plausibility of observed effects. To ensure and enhance the study quality, it appears imperative that future studies report their procedures in sufficient detail (e.g., exercise and training variables) and pay attention to established guidelines such as the CONSORT statement [202] or the STROBE statement [203].


The reviewed studies were conducted with healthy young adults, healthy older adults, or older adults with MCI or beginning dementia. Therefore, our knowledge about the effect of resistance exercises and/or resistance training on cognitive functions is limited to these cohorts, and further investigations with other cohorts are required. In particular, older adults with sarcopenia are a key group because there is a high prevalence (ranging from 1 to 33%) of this condition in various older populations [204], which poses major economic costs to the welfare system [205]. Sarcopenia comprises the age-related loss of muscle mass [206,207,208,209,210] but in the literature the term has often been (incorrectly) extended to the age-related loss of muscle function (e.g., muscle strength) [210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219]. The latter one should be referred to as dynapenia which encompasses the age-related loss of muscle function (e.g., loss of muscular strength and power) [209,210,211, 220]. However, age-related muscular changes (e.g., sarcopenia) could also lead to a decline in cognitive performance [221, 222]. Hence, older adults with sarcopenia and/or dynapenia may profit in two ways (physically and cognitively) from resistance exercises/resistance training.


With regard to all studies reviewed, the exercise and training variables of the resistance intervention protocols were chosen as to induce muscle hypertrophy and muscle strength improvements, which is not surprising, as resistance training programs generally focus on improving these two factors. Moreover, this observation is consistent with two other reviews summarizing the results of resistance exercise and resistance training studies on outcomes on a behavioral level [107, 353]. However, given that the dose provided by a physical intervention (e.g., resistance exercise or resistance training) is a function of exercise variables and training variables and that the reviewed studies are relatively homogenous regarding the selection of exercise variables and training variables, our knowledge about the dose-response relationship in resistance exercise and resistance training is relatively meager (especially in view of the fact that resistance exercises and resistance training can be designed in many different ways to focus on different aims for muscular performance). A deeper understanding of the dose-response relationship is needed [105, 108, 110] because the dose (the design of exercise variables and training variables, see Table 3) is a key factor influencing responsiveness [357, 358] and individualizing physical interventions [123, 124, 359].


Finally, similar to the major ongoing discussions regarding which variables may be optimal to improve muscular adaptions, such as muscle hypertrophy or strength [376,377,378,379,380,381,382,383,384,385,386,387,388,389,390], the optimal exercise prescription (e.g., exercise variables and training variables) for resistance exercises and/or resistance training with respect to brain health (including appropriate functional and structural brain changes as well as enhancement of cognitive functions) are largely unknown and have to be elucidated in future studies [105, 108, 110]. In addition, the interested reader may find further and more detailed information regarding the design of resistance exercise sessions or resistance training in the referenced literature [355, 391,392,393,394].


The research conducted so far has studied untrained transgender women. Thus, while this research is important to understand the isolated effects of testosterone suppression, it is still uncertain how transgender women athletes, perhaps undergoing advanced training regimens to counteract the muscle loss during the therapy, would respond. It is also important to recognize that performance in most sports may be influenced by factors outside muscle mass and strength, and the balance between inclusion, safety and fairness therefore differs between sports. While there is certainly a need for more focused research on this topic, including more comprehensive performance tests in transgender women athletes and studies on training capacity of transgender women undergoing hormone therapy, it is still important to recognize that the biological factors underpinning athletic performance are unequivocally established. It is, therefore, possible to make strong inferences and discuss potential performance implications despite the lack of direct sport-specific studies in athletes. Finally, since athlete safety could arguably be described as the immediate priority above considerations of fairness and inclusion, proper risk assessment should be conducted within respective sports that continue to include transgender women in the female category.


Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) and now in its fourth edition, Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning is the essential text for strength and conditioning professionals and students. This comprehensive resource, created by 30 expert contributors in the field, explains the key theories, concepts, and scientific principles of strength training and conditioning as well as their direct application to athletic competition and performance. The scope and content of Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Edition with Web Resource, have been updated to convey the knowledge, skills, and abilities required of a strength and conditioning professional and to address the latest information found on the Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) exam. The evidence-based approach and unbeatable accuracy of the text make it the primary resource to rely on for CSCS exam preparation.


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